**Different Structural Models for the Universe**

There is a progression from a simple positively curved model to more complex forms. Each is based on an asymmetrical inhomogeneous universe with the black 'pole' by definition occupying a privileged position.

To the left is the simplest model of a finite universe, the south pole representing the black pole carrying over two thirds the mass of the universe. This model appears to address a number of the anomalies without the need for employing a more complicated form. However, the universe may be more complicated requiring a more complicated model.

Rotating the sphere above about the black pole yields a horn torus with black pole at its centre. This model adopts the concept of a 4 dimensional finite universe and its ability to curve back in on itself while retaining the 'flat' nature of the universe. Here triangles still add up to 180° and parallel lines remain 'parallel' or at least do not cross one another. They do however get infinitely close as they pass through the black pole at the centre.

Analogous to the field associated with a magnetic dipole (in the diagram to the left the north and south would be to the left and right of the page), Nesting' horn toruses one inside the other with a black pole as the common centre yields a positive 'field' model. It can be argued that this model provides for an infinite anisotropic inhomogeneous universe.

The idea of employing the horn torus to model the universe was explored in Wolfgang Daeumler's 1989 German publication. An English website highlighting some of the aspects of the paper can be viewed by clicking on his rotating icon below.